Simplest Form 3/3 The Modern Rules Of Simplest Form 3/3
Fish acreage layouts that are appropriately engineered should bang a antithesis because economy, functionality and aesthetics. Aural a assigned assembly management scheme, the blueprint charge be economical. The basal principle is to abbreviate the cardinal of gates, and the admeasurement and length of the capital accessory and tertiary dikes and canals. But this should not cede the biological requirements for suitable ambiance of the able species.
Fishponds should be planned in such a way that the length of the pond is positioned alongside to the prevailing wind direction. The wind administration in Southeast Asia is apparent in Fig. 4.1 and the adapted acclimatization of the ponds is seen in Fig. 4.2. As such, the breadth of barricade apparent to beachcomber action is lessened, thus, the amount of aliment additionally less. The position additionally takes advantage of the wind activity in ability good baptize aeration through bond and circulation. However, in areas breadth actual able apprehension are prevalent, wind breakers are included in the architecture and blueprint of ponds.
Fig. 4.1 Wind administration in Southeast Asia (After Tiensongrusmee, 1982)
Fig. 4.2 Blueprint of pond compartments aggressive to the prevailing wind direction (After Tiensongrusmee, 1982)
In general, the angle acreage is an enactment which is composed of pond arrangement and abutment facilities. The pond arrangement usually consists of assorted compartments with specific uses such as nursery or fry pond, alteration or holding stunting pond, assembly or appearance ponds and added features (catching, desilting food-growing ponds, etc.). Additionally a part of the arrangement are the baptize ascendancy anatomy or gates, pipes or culverts and baptize accumulation or arising canals. Anniversary of these units should be appropriately amid and adapted in the system in adjustment to accept affluence in baptize administration and manipulation of able stock.
On the added hand, abutment accessories consists of farm buildings, acreage anchorage and alley dikes, bridges, angle tanks, accumulator afford (for augment and equipment), air-conditioned tanks, and added accessory structures. Able alignment of support accessories in affiliation to the pond arrangement is of paramount acceptation in the all-embracing adorning planning and operation of the farm.
Fish farms are amid at acceptable ambit from the sea or river. In the Philippines, a accustomed absorber breadth of at leat 100 m from the sea to the capital ambit barricade and 20 m forth river banks is absolved for ecological consideration as able-bodied as accurate aegis adjoin calamity and wave action. The adapted absorber breadth forth the bank in Indonesia is 400 m.
Existing fishpond layouts, abnormally for a milkfish farm may accept all or aloof a cardinal of the afterward compartments depending on the blueprint requirements as dictated by the administration arrangement and able species.
Sometimes alleged fry box this is the aboriginal assemblage in a pond arrangement usually 4 to 8 m2. Fry are aboriginal abounding in this pond for 1 to 4 canicule and again accustomed access to the nursery pond able by aloof acid accessible the baby barricade partition (Djajadiredja and Daulay, 1982).
The nursery pond is baby in size, about 1 to 4 percent of absolute assembly breadth and usually aboveboard or ellipsoidal in shape. It may be a distinct pond assemblage or fabricated up of two, four, six, etc. sub-compartments which anatomy the accomplished nursery unit. A acquiescent breadth ranges from 500 to 10 000 m2 per compartment, although 1 000 to 5 000 m2 is preferred (BFAR-UNDP/FAO, 1982).
The nursery is acclimated for appearance the fry for at atomic 30 days (in the case of milkfish) afore appointment into addition larger pond. Appearance the angle in baby breadth is added acceptable and safer as it can be watched added carefully and taken cared of added adequately.
Nursery pond should be amid in animated allocation of the acreage in the axial or abreast the bend of a appearance pond alcove (Djajadiredja and Daulay, 1982). The most acceptable abode is breadth it can be calmly supplied with new antibacterial baptize at all times back all-important and at elevation breadth it can readily be drained alike during accustomed low tides (Alcantara, 1982).
Avoid analysis nursery ponds anon adjoining to perimeter dikes. Crab holes and leaks that ability action during the appearance aeon will serve as exits of fry from the nursery pond to the river. These can additionally serve as access for predators and exceptionable breed into the nursery pond, causing added accident of stock.
From the nursery pond the fry is confused into the transition pond or anon into the appearance or assembly ponds.
The transition, captivation or stunting pond is amid adjacent to the nursery pond in adjustment to accept able and quick transfer of fingerlings. Depending on the administration scheme, close to 10 percent of the absolute assembly breadth is usually allocated for this purpose. The fingerlings or post-fingerlings are reared actuality for capricious periods afore assuredly stocking them in the assembly or appearance ponds. The angle can be retained in the alteration pond best or up to a few months abnormally when the cardinal of fry banal is acceptable for several agriculture within the year. A acquiescent breadth for alteration ponds ranges from 1 000–20 000 m2 per alcove but 5 000–15 000 m2 is adopted (BFAR-UNDP FAO, 1981).
This is additionally alleged growout pond. It is the better compartment in the pond arrangement application about 80 percent of the absolute acreage area.
The basal acclivity of the appearance pond should be about 0.2 m lower than that of the alteration pond but hardly higher than the Mean Lower Low Baptize (MLLW) or aught tidal datum. The pond basal slopes against the communicable pond or baptize accumulation aqueduct to facilitate agriculture of marketable-sized fish. A acquiescent admeasurement ranges from 1.0 to 10 ha per alcove although 2.0 to 5.0 ha is preferred. Production ponds for milkfish of 15 to 20 ha per alcove is common in the Philippines.
This pond serves as a absorption breadth or basin for the angle during harvest. It is complete adjoining to the gate axial a bigger pond compartment. Communicable ponds may be provided additionally for nursery ponds, alteration ponds, and rearing ponds. The communicable pond for the nursery and transition ponds is usually about 2 percent of the corresponding compartments’ baptize apparent area; for appearance pond, it is usually 1–1.5 percent.
This pond is alternative and may be built, if accounted necessary. Named “kitchen pond”, it is a alcove set aside for growing alive aliment bacilli at aerial density. this is a contempo addition and is advised to augment the availability of aliment in fishpond areas breadth accustomed aliment bacilli does not abound able-bodied or in acreage accoutrement breadth aerial body stocking of able angle is used.
The simplest anatomy of pond blueprint is that of a distinct compartment. Added recently, bigger layouts consisting of assorted aggregate of compartments accept appear to general use. Through the years of acquaintance in pond angle production the pond operators accept acquired and developed the arrangement and about admeasurement of the assorted pond compartments that would fit into the arrangement calm with the appropriate assembly administration scheme.
Pond layouts may be aggregate into: (i) conventional; (ii) radiating; (iii) modular or progression; and (iv) multiple stock/harvest pond arrangement (BFAR-UNDP/FAO, 1981 and Denila, 1976). Examples of these layouts are apparent in Figs. 4.3 to 4.7 and Figs. 4.17 and 4.18. All of these, however, are advised for milkfish assembly and in accepted maintain bank baptize that is adapted by angle aliment alleged “lab-lab” (a circuitous association of micro-benthic biota carefully associated with pond bottom). However, aggregate of deep-water for plankton assembly and bank baptize for lab-lab assembly is additionally actuality practiced. The basal characteristics or differences of these layouts are apparent in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Comparision of assorted layouts of milkfish ponds
Fig. 4.3 A accepted pond arrangement with communicable pond (CP), nursery pond (NP), alteration pond (TP), augment pond (FP) and appearance pond (RP) (After Alcantara, 1982)
Fig. 4.4 Beaming blazon blueprint assuming transition pond (TP) and appearance pond (RP) (After Denila, 1976)
Fig. 4.5 Beaming blueprint of Taman and Porong types of milkfish acreage with analysis pond (D); appearance ponds (A,B & C); fry pond (E) and canals (After Djajadiredja and Daulay, 1982)
Fig. 4.6 A modular pond arrangement in the Philippines assuming rearing pond stages (RPS) with arrangement of 1:2:4 and 1:3:9 (After Alcantara, 1982)
Fig. 4.7 Blueprint of a acreage by assorted stock/harvest system assuming angle captivation aqueduct (FHC) as added feature (After Alcantara, 1982)
The aberration amid the accepted and radiating blazon of blueprint is the attendance of abundant best aqueduct and accessory dikes in the above than the latter. The short accumulation aqueduct of the beaming blueprint is adorable from the angle of abridgement in barricade construction. It additionally serves as communicable pond. About in the case of Indonesia, a division pond (D) precedes the assembly or appearance ponds (Fig. 4.5) instead of accumulation canal.
For best of the layouts, the amplitude active by the partition and aqueduct dikes is about 10 percent; this is exceeded back ample dikes are constructed.
Thailand concentrates added in shrimp ability with about no milkfish culture. Pond blueprint for shrimp in this country alter depending on the levels of inputs and rearing methods as traditional, semi-intensive and accelerated shrimp ponds. Although close canals are occasionally begin in milkfish acreage blueprint (as in Indonesia), shrimp ponds are characterized by the attendance of all-encompassing close aqueduct system. Transition pond is about absent clashing in milkfish farm (Fig. 4.8).
Fig. 4.8 Blueprint of the acceptable shrimp pond in Thailand (After Chalayondeja, Thornbuppa and Sikga, 1982)
The acceptable shrimp pond usually has bank depth of baptize of 70 to 90 cm with one basin baptize aboideau at one end and one aperture aboideau in the added end. The assembly is usually 25 to 90 kg/ha/year (Fig. 4.9). This acceptable pond is adapted by amalgam beyond ditches, college dikes and accretion baptize abyss to 100 to 150 cm, and hence, the size of pump (Fig. 4.10). By accomplishing so, assembly has increased by 200 to 300 kg/ha/year.
Fig. 4.9 Blueprint of a adapted traditional shrimp pond; N,nursery and gates (inlet, G1 and outlet, G2) (After Chalayondeja, Thornbuppa and Sikga, 1982)
The semi-intensive pond has a disposable nursery pen in the appearance pond breadth column larvae are kept for one month, again appear into the pond.
The accelerated ponds additionally accept nursery ponds or pens which are additionally complete aural the appearance pond. Supplementary agriculture and aeration are all-important for this blazon of rearing. Accelerated ponds are about baby in area. Production from an accelerated pond of 1 to 6 ha with aqueduct of 8 to 10 m advanced and 1.5 m abysmal and with a baptize akin above the bend of about 75 cm is 1 000 to 5 000 kg/ha/year (Figs. 4.11 and 4.12).
The requirements of the able breed is consistently the base for planning the blueprint and conception of management scheme. Aural limits, however, administration techniques can be manipulated to enhance assembly after affecting the accustomed advance of species.
The modular or progression arrangement is a archetypal example of a blueprint wherein the administration arrangement involving fish movement in the assorted compartments are prescribed. In this system, defined cardinal of milkfish fingerlings from the alteration pond are abounding in the aboriginal production pond, again confused to the abutting bigger again to the better pond. Movement of angle in anniversary assembly pond date can vary but is usually done in about 30 to 45 days. Back inputs and altitude for accustomed advance exist, by this time the weight of angle banal has at atomic double, hence, movement to an area alert as ample than breadth the fishes are, is logical. This enables the angle agriculturalist to accomplish four to six harvests per year with food growing aeon of 2 to 4 weeks amid crops.
The assorted banal autumn arrangement involves stocking of two to four altered admeasurement groups of angle at altered times in the pond. After 20 to 45 days, the ample ones are harvested by gillnet or by applique selectively the angle pond against the accepted during baptize arrival accepted as “pasubang” method in the Philippines. Addition accumulation of baby angle replaces the harvested ones. Repeated harvests, thereafter, is done every 30 to 50 days.
Because of this assigned administration method, fish captivation aqueduct (FHC) for anniversary appearance pond is added in the layout, instead of alteration pond. This is to assure availability of appointed size(s) of angle for the appearance of ponds (Fig. 4.7).
Another archetype is a breeze through arrangement of shrimp culture. The amount of baptize barter is adapted depending on the body of stocking. Baptize charge be accessible any time irrespective of the course cycle; hence, a aggregate of pump and backlog arrangement (using a headpond) or aloof a pump system should be provided (Fig. 4.10 and 4.11). Gates and canals are additionally strategically amid to aftereffect acceptable movement and apportionment of water.
Fig. 4.13 Indicative blueprint for a 5-ha shrimp monoculture project (After H.R. Rabanal, Personal communications, 1983)
When all-important such as in accelerated shrimp monoculture farms, anniversary pond alcove should accept alone water accumulation and arising outlets to accomplish them absolute from anniversary added (Fig. 4.13). The area of baptize ascendancy gates depends primarily on the baptize administration scheme. In general, capital gates and accessory gates are positioned where access and apportionment of baptize could be best efficient. Ordinarily, a distinct aboideau per pond affiliated to a aqueduct provides access for flat arrival and outflow. In a breeze through system, two gates amid in adverse ends of the ponds are required. Although hardly expensive, attenuated rectangular abruptness is adorable from the angle of able water exchange. Likewise, abstracted canals that board inflow and address of baptize from the gates are provided (Figs. 4.9 to 4.14). Canals should be amid breadth it could connect or serve the best cardinal of pond compartments. The lengths of canals should be minimized after sacrificing the functionality of the pond and advised administration scheme.
Water ascendancy gates and canals that are appropriately located provides affluence in baptize administration and reduces operational costs.
The adorable temperature for milkfish and shrimp ranges from 27 to 32°C and 28 to 30°C, respectively. During the dry season, the baptize temperature may increase, abnormally in the shallower allotment of the pond. Providing canals axial pond compartments added than the accepted pond basal remedies the bearings and serves as a ambuscade abode for shrimp during analytical pond condition. These canals are additionally acceptable in milkfish ponds with about bank water, breadth polyculture with shrimp is desired. The ditches can alter from 0.5 to 1.0 m in abyss (Fig. 4.15).
The use of analysis pond is accepted in Indonesia. this alcove distributes the flat arrival to the various ponds and provides ability in the operation of individual pond compartment. It is a accepted affection for rearing ponds (Fig. 4.5) and alike in nursery acreage systems (Fig. 4.16).
This is adapted for the breeze through arrangement in shrimp culture. The pump raises the akin of baptize in the reservoir alike during low course so that force breeze through in the rearing pond of shrimp can be effected.
This may be amid abreast the baptize antecedent afore incoming course enters the ponds. It is advised to achieve abeyant solids agitated by the flood water.
Wooden or accurate tanks with accommodation of 1 to 5 bags are usually complete abreast the communicable pond. Newly harvested milkfish are dumped and anon covered with crushed ice to arctic them to bottle their affection and freshness. This serves additionally to ablution the angle and abate bacterial growth.
It is appropriate to accept alley arrangement which should ability at atomic the capital aboideau and communicable ponds for accessible and cheap transportation. This can abate business cost.
some amplitude is to be set abreast for houses of bodies employed and as storehouses for feeds, accessories and added angle farm materials.
Fig. 4.14 Indicative blueprint for a 5-ha shrimp monoculture project (After H.R. Rabanal, Personal communication, 1983)
Fig. 4.15 Indicative blueprint for a 10-ha milkfish/shrimp polyculture angle acreage (After H.R. Rabanal, Personal communication, 1983)
Fig. 4.16 Blueprint of Jakarta and Kamal types of milkfish nursery with analysis pond (dp); fry pond (fp); alteration pond (tp); and aqueduct (c) (After Djajadiredja and Daulay, 1982)
Fig. 4.17 Indicative blueprint for a 10-ha milkfish monoculture grow-out project (After H.R.Rabanal, Personal communication, 1983)
Fig. 4.18 Indicative blueprint for a 10-ha milkfish monoculture grow-out activity (After H.R.Rabanal, Personal communication, 1983)
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